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An Overview of the Payments Code of Conduct in Canada

An Overview of the Payments Code of Conduct in Canada

The Payments Code of Conduct in Canada was created to bring fairness and transparency in the payment industry. It is structured into multiple sections targeting specific aspects of payment processing and merchant services for debit cards and credit cards. 

This article covers the sections of the Canadian Code of Conduct, Interchange Plus Pricing, problems, controversies, and benefits of the conduct, and a list of important resources. 

What is the Canada Payments Code of Conduct?

In Canada, the Code of Conduct for the Credit and Debit Card Industry regulates the interactions between credit card networks, banks, and merchants. Introduced in 2010, it aims to create a fairer and more transparent system. 

The code is technically voluntary, however the Financial Consumer Agency of Canada (FCAC) monitors compliance. It provides a detailed framework to govern the interactions among merchants, payment processors, and payment card networks. The FCAC is one of the key organizations in the Canadian payments regulatory framework (see more).

The Code ensures merchants are fully aware of the fees involved in accepting credit and debit card payments, and it allows them more freedom to choose which payment options they’ll accept. This can potentially lead to lower costs for both merchants and consumers.

Transparency and Disclosure

The code of conduct mandates that all payment industry parties involved in the payment process must provide comprehensive and understandable information about the fees, terms, and conditions of the services offered. 

This transparency is fundamental in enabling merchants to make informed decisions and facilitates a transparent relationship between merchants and payment processors.

Keep in mind, the code offers recommendations and are not fully enforced. The way payment processing is charged in Canada is quite varied.

Merchant Rights to Freedom of Choice

In the code of conduct, merchants are entitled to select the payment options that best suit their business needs without undue influence or pressure from payment processors or card networks. It ensures that merchants can accept a variety of payment methods without facing penalties or restrictive conditions.

Fairness in Contracts and Fees

The code of conduct requires that any changes to contracts, fees, or terms of service be disclosed to merchants well in advance of their implementation. Such disclosures must be clear and timely, providing merchants with an opportunity to adapt their business practices accordingly.

Making Sure Competition is Fair

The code of conduct promotes a level playing field within the payment industry by prohibiting practices that could stifle competition. This is called “Competitive Equity”. It supports policies that encourage innovation and enhancements, thereby improving overall market efficiency and security.

Interchange Plus Pricing

A significant recommendation within the Payments Code of Conduct is the adoption of Interchange Plus pricing. This pricing model is advocated to enhance pricing transparency by clearly separating the interchange fees (set by the card networks) and the markup charged by the payment processors. 

Here’s how Interchange Plus Pricing benefits the stakeholders:

  • Clarity and Predictability: Merchants benefit from a clear understanding of the costs associated with each transaction, which enhances their ability to forecast expenses and manage financial planning more effectively.
  • Competitive Advantage: With a transparent fee structure, merchants can compare offers from different processors more easily, ensuring that they can secure the most competitive rates.
  • Lower Costs: As merchants gain the ability to negotiate better rates and choose cost-effective processing solutions, these savings can be passed on to consumers in the form of lower prices.
  • Enhanced Service: The competitive pressure on payment processors to offer efficient and reasonably priced services can lead to better overall customer service for both merchants and consumers.

Measurable Benefits from the Code of Conduct

Since its inception in 2010, the Payments Code of Conduct has introduced several pivotal changes to the landscape of financial transactions, with tangible benefits.

  1. Cost Savings for Merchants: The requirement for payment networks to provide 90-day notifications before fee changes and to pass on reductions in interchange fees has led to cost savings for merchants. Although specific statistics on savings across the industry are not detailed in records, it appears that rates have come down by 20% from 2010 to 2024.

  2. Increased Merchant Satisfaction: The enhancements in contractual flexibility, such as the ability to switch processors without penalty if fees increase unexpectedly or if reductions in interchange fees are not passed on, have increased merchant satisfaction.

  3. Stimulation of Competitive Market: The Code’s emphasis on fair competition has helped to prevent monopolistic practices and ensured that smaller payment processors can compete with larger ones. This has contributed to the introduction of more competitive rates and innovative payment solutions in the market.

  4. Enhanced Consumer Benefits: Indirectly, consumers have benefited from the Code through lower merchant costs that can translate into lower prices for goods and services. Moreover, the ability for merchants to offer discounts for lower-cost payment methods has promoted the use of these options, enhancing consumer choice.

  5. Regulatory Compliance and Enforcement: The role of the Financial Consumer Agency of Canada (FCAC) in monitoring compliance has ensured that the Code’s provisions are adhered to, which has led to a more stable and predictable payments environment. The FCAC reports minimal violations annually, indicating high compliance levels across the industry.

Controversy & Problems with the Payments Code

While the Payments Code of Conduct in Canada has been broadly welcomed for promoting transparency and fairness in the payments industry, there have been discussions and some concerns regarding its implementation and impact.

One area of contention has been the enforcement of reductions in interchange fees. Although Visa and MasterCard agreed to lower their interchange rates, ensuring that these savings are passed on to merchants has been a significant challenge. The code mandates that savings from lowered interchange rates must be fully passed on to merchants, and if they are not, merchants have the right to terminate their agreements without penalty. However, the actual process of verifying and enforcing these reductions can be almost impossible.

Another point of debate is about the provisions related to contactless payments and the use of mobile payment platforms. The code allows merchants the flexibility to decide whether to accept contactless payments and under what terms. While this flexibility is intended to empower merchants, it also requires them to stay informed about the terms of their payment processing agreements and any changes to those agreements, which can add a layer of administrative complexity. For example, depending on the type of payments merchants accept, the fees can change considerably.

The code has also been criticized for not going far enough in some areas, such as advertising standards for processing fees. Some people have said that despite the code’s intentions, some payment processors still advertise misleading rates, which do not reflect the total costs that merchants will incur.

More Info on the Payments Code of Conduct

For comprehensive information on the Payments Code of Conduct in Canada, you can explore several resources. The main details and guidelines for the Code of Conduct for the Credit and Debit Card Industry in Canada can be found on the official website of the Government of Canada (

The Financial Consumer Agency of Canada (FCAC) oversees the enforcement and compliance of the code. Their website offers further insights into the regulations as well as educational resources on the financial consumer rights and protections established under the code (


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